Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid

Resident’s Name: Wayne Dobbins and Michael Hatton                                          Date: 8/1/16
Article Title: Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid
Author(s): Malamud D
Journal: Dent Clin N Am 55 (2011) 159-178
Date: 2011
Major Topic: Salivary Diagnostics
Type of Article: Literature Review and Expert Opinion
Main Purpose: To advocate the usage of saliva in diagnosis of multiple medical conditions
Key Points: A large variety of biomarkers are detectable in saliva, and saliva is easily collected and stored. Improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of salivary diagnostics have the potential to make salivary testing an important part of the diagnostic process.
Analysis of saliva, gingivocrevicular fluid, oral swabs, dental plaque, and volatiles is a growing field, and has a number of applications in the diagnosis of systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, renal disease, diabetes, malignancy, autoimmune disease, psychological disorder, and infectious disease. Additionally, salivary diagnostics can identify markers in a number of oral conditions, including SCC and oral infections.

Listed below, examples of biomarkers detectable in saliva.
Many recent advances have allowed for advancement in this field, including rapid advancement in techniques that allow for the amplification of analytes, such as ELISA. However, a number of challenges remain in this field. Clinical studies are required to validate the diagnostic value of many of these tests, further studies are required to confirm suspected links between measurable biomarkers and specific conditions, a wider variety of pathogen specific tests must be developed to further its use as a diagnostic tool in the case of infection.

Mentor Remarks:
Assessment of Article:  Level of Evidence/Comments: VII

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