Monday, August 21, 2017

Oral Biofilms: Emerging Concepts in Microbial Ecology


Resident’s Name:            Carol Caudill                                                                                    Date: 8/23/17
Article Title: Oral Biofilms: Emerging Concepts in Microbial Ecology
Author(s): S. Filoche, L. Wong, C.H. Sissons
Journal: Journal of Dental Research
Date: 2010
Major Topic: Oral Biofilms
Type of Article: Review/Summary of a Topic
Main Purpose: To discuss emerging concepts in microbial ecology and how they relate to oral biofilm development and to treatment of oral diseases
Key Points: The microbial ecology of plaque and the diseases it causes is much more complex than previously thought

Microbial Ecological Factors that Affect Oral Biofilm Development
·      Microbial ecology: the relationship of micro-organisms with one another and with their environment
·      Microbial ecosystem: a system that consists of all the micro-organisms that live in a certain area or niche
·      Dental plaque is a dynamic and extremely complex microbial ecosystem
·      Ecological plaque hypothesis: a key environmental factor will trigger a shift in the balance of the resident plaque microflora to a disease-associated species composition
·      Although dental plaque is recognized as a complex microbial system, the experimental studies that investigated dental plaque from a microbial ecological perspective are substantially fewer than those that described single-species

The Ecology of Dental Plaque in Health and Disease
·      In health there is an ecological balance between the human host and the indigenous micro-organisms
·      Health is associated with
·    lack of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus
·    elevated levels of Veillonella, Deferribaceres, Bacteroidetes, Atopobium rimae, Atopobium parvulum
·      Cariogenic plaque results when normally low populations of acidogenic and aciduric baterial species, previously in balance with the oral environment and other plaque species increase following high-frequency carbohydrate exposure
·      Periodontal disease associated with: P. gingivalis, T. Denticola, P. intermedia, A.a. and F. nucleatum

Metagenomic Analysis of the Oral Microbiome
·      New technology exists for finding species that cannot be cultured. This includes things like polymerase chain-reaction amplification and pyrosequencing. These new techniques, however, cannot provide information about the function or metabolic requirements of the bacteria

Inter-Individual Variation in the Oral Microbiome
·      Although humans are very genetically similar, host-microbe interactions vary according to the individual.
·      People are variable in what is normal and healthy oral microflora.
·      Because we now know that there is inter-individual variation, we know that we have probably though about plaque formation too simplistically in the past. Plaque development is person-specific

Biofilm Detachment and Dispersal-Role of Microbial Aggregates
·      Oral bacteria may be able to aggregate, detach, and spread to other areas of the mouth. If so, this could be targeted with a therapeutic agent in the future.

Development of Heterogeneous Plaques-the Roles of Location and Spatial Patterning
·      Plaque is made up of different bacteria in different parts of the mouth.

Implications for the Treatment of Oral Diseases-an Ecological Approach
·      The goal should not be a global reduction in plaque biomass but rather a shift from harmful bacteria to good bacteria

Biofilm Structure, Altruistic Behavior, and Antimicrobial Treatment
·      Different types of bacteria work together in plaque to make them less vulnerable to antimicrobial treatment than they would be on their own
 Biofilm Detachment and Dispersal-Role of Microbial Aggregates
·      As we learn more about the oral biofilm, the information can hopefully be used to develop new therapies for treatment of disease
Remarks:
1-Basically, the oral biofilm is very complex and there’s still a lot we don’t understand
2-
Assessment of Article:  Level of Evidence/Comments: Level III, background information

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